Journal articles

Journal articles

Journal articles

Journal articles are where you will find empirical studies, literature reviews, meta-analyses, and other types of scholarly communication. Use databases to find journal articles.

Tutorial for PubMed (Written) by the National Library of Medicine

PubMed Quick Tours (Video) by the National Library of Medicine - Brief tutorials on specific topics

Video Tutorials for PsycINFO

How do I find: An Empirical Article using PsycINFO    

How do I find:  A Clinical Case Study or Nonclinical Case Study using PsycINFO

List of methodology value fields along with explanations in PsycINFO (source: APA databases methodology).



Most Useful

Database Full Text Coverage Scholarly

Available via EbscoHost: A comprehensive international database of psychology, covering the academic, research, and practice literature in psychology from over 45 countries in more than 30 languages.

Some full-text; plus links to full-text via Get-It 1887 to current All
Biological Abstracts

A complete collection of bibliographic references covering life science and biomedical research literature published from more than 4,000 journals internationally.

Some full-text; plus links to full-text via Get-It 1969 to current Most
PubMed @ CSUSM

The premier database of world biomedical literature on clinical medicine and preclinical research. Medline provides a more user-friendly interface, but less updated content.

Some full-text; plus links to full-text via Get-It 1966 to current All
Google Scholar CSUSM

Link to citations and full-text from your CSUSM Library databases and beyond!

Some full-text; plus links to full-text via Get-It current to current All

Provides full text access to over 1,000 journals covering all fields of science.

Full-text 1995 to current Most

Also Useful

Database Full Text Coverage Scholarly
Sociological Abstracts

Provides access to the latest international findings in theoretical and applied sociology, social science, and political science.

Links to full-text via Get-It 1963 to current All
Social Services Abstracts

Abstracts of current research focused on social work, human services, and related areas, including social welfare, social policy, and community development.

Links to full-text via Get-It 1980 to current All
Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts (LLBA)

Provides abstracts of articles from about 2,000 journals (published worldwide), coverage of recent books, book review citations and dissertation listings.

Links to full-text via Get-It 1973 to current All
CINAHL Complete

CINAHL, the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature, provides indexing for articles from 5,400 journals in the fields of nursing and allied health. This database provides full text access to more than 1,300 journals dating back to 1937.

Links to full-text via Get-It 1937 to current Most

Literature reviews

Literature reviews

Literature reviews

Why Do We Write Literature Reviews?

Academic communities refer to what has been written on a topic as the literature on the topic. A literature review is a comprehensive evaluation of the important research that has been done on your topic.

Scholars write literature reviews because it gives them and other scholars the big picture of what is known about a particular topic. This helps scholars figure out what further research needs to be done. Are there holes are in the existing research? Are there new related topics that can be explored based upon what we already know from the existing research?

A literature review is NOT just a summary. Even though summarizing the existing research is an important part of a literature review, even more important is your discussion and analysis of the existing research findings.

In order for your literature review to be useful to other researchers, you must:

  • organize the information
  • connect the information to the hypothesis or research question you are developing
  • compare and contrast the existing research findings
  • identify controversies that appear in the literature
  • identify themes that appear in the literature

Check out these sites for more help understanding literature reviews:

Research Tips for Literature Reviews

Here are a few pointers:

  • Always look at the list of references at the end of an article. It tells you what other research on the same topic the author consulted in order to write his/her article. You can find those same articles and use them in your literature review!
  • If you find an article that is great for your topic, look for it in Google Scholar. Click on the Cited by ## link to see what research has been conducted since the original article that cites that article. This will lead you to more recent research that is likely to be relevant to your topic.
  • See if other literature reviews have been done on your topic! They will likely have long lists of references at the end that contain many articles relevant to your topic. (Hint: To find literature reviews, add "literature review" to your keyword search.)

Finding Literature Reviews

As you work on your literature review, you may want to look at other literature reviews for ideas on how to organize yours, or to see if they have found any interesting research that you might like to include in your review.

To search within PsycINFO for literature reviews, go to Advanced Search, find the Methodology menu, and select LITERATURE REVIEW.



Tests and Measures

Tests and Measures

Tests and Measures in Psychology


Test collections and reviews

Start here
Many students find what they are looking for in the books listed below. The items listed below are collections of measures and include information on scoring, validity, reliability, etc.

Measures for clinical practice : a sourcebook  
 Available at Check Out Desk
View Volume 1 Table of Contents
View Volume 2 Table of Contents

  • One of our most useful collections of measures.
  • Useful in clinical psychology with tests for children through adults.
  • Specifically useful for marriage and family assessments.
  • Contains reviews of test and example tests.

Measures of personality and social psychological attitudes 
 Available at Check Out Desk
View Table of Contents

  • One of our most useful collections of measures.
  • Provides a wide range of scales and measures used in the social sciences.
  • Focuses on attitude and personality scales for use in research and lab settings.
  • Includes the tests.

Rating scales in mental health
View Table of Contents

  • Provides a wide range of scales and measures.

Measuring violence-related attitudes, behaviors, and influences among youths: a compendium of assessment tools
View Table of Contents

  • One of our most useful collections of measures.
  • A wide ranging collection that has measures far beyond violence-related topics.

Measures included

  • Contains a wide variety of tests, despite the title.
  • Includes the tests.
  • Reviews reliability and validity.

Handbook of sexuality-related measures 
View Table of Contents

  • A systematic review of sexuality-related measures.
  • Organized by topic and includes description, scoring, reliability, and validity.
  • Includes the tests.

Handbook of family measurement techniques 

Volume 1 Table of Contents
Volume 2 Table of Contents
Volume 3 Table of Contents

  • While this source has many measures that may be of use, it can be confusing to navigate this 3 volume set. Please contact Yvonne Meulemans if you need help.
  • Includes measures as well as detailed abstracts about the measures.

The measurement of attitudes toward people with disabilities : methods, psychometrics, and scales
View Table of Contents 
scroll to Part 3 for list of measures included


Measures of political attitudes
View Table of Contents

  • Comprehensive collection of political attitude measures.
  • Includes measures of: liberalism and conservatism, economic values, racial attitudes, trust in government, and other related concepts.

Handbook of tests and measurements in education and the social sciences
View Table of Contents

  • Provides a variety of measures that could be used in an educational setting. (e.g. Self-efficacy in teachers, Teacher burnout.)
  • Includes a very informative first chapter on data analysis.

Borg's perceived exertion and pain scales
View Table of Contents

  • Includes actual scales and instructions for use.

Measuring health
View Table of Contents

  • Provides measures on disability, psychological well-being, quality of life, and other aspects of health.
  • Includes validity, reliability and scoring parameters.

Handbook of psychiatric measures
View Table of Contents

  • A collection of measures for the clinical setting.
  • Includes the tests and reviews.
  • Accompanying CD-ROM includes over 100 actual measures.

Handbook of measurements for marriage and family therapy

Assessing children's well-being : a handbook of measures 
View Table of Contents

  • 20 measures of children's health, perceptions of health, and related issues.
  • Includes validity, reliability and scoring parameters.

Measurement of nursing outcomes
Volume 1 Table of Contents 
Volume 2 Table of Contents 
Volume 3 Table of Contents

Handbook of community-based and home health nursing practice : tools for assessment, intervention, and education 
View Table of Contents

Assessing alcohol problems : a guide for clinicians and researchers
View list of 53 instruments

Multi-dimensional measurement of religiousness/spirituality for use in health research

  • A collection of measures of religiosity and related areas.
  • Includes the tests, reviews, validity and reliability information.

Pereira, MA. FitzerGerald SF, Gregg EW, et. al. (1997). A collection of Physical Activity Questionnaires for health-related research. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29 (6 Supplement), S1-S205.
Journal’s call number: RC1200 .M44 

  • A collection of questionnaires to measure physical activity.

Lists, descriptions, and references to measures

Mental Measurements Yearbook aka Buros mental measurements yearbook
Z5814.P8 B932 5th Floor Stacks

  • The comprehensive source for test reviews.
  • Organized alphabetically by measure title.
  • Indexes measures by title, title acronym, subject, and authors.

Tests in Print 
Z5814.E9 T47 Reference and 5th Floor Stacks

  • Describes what the test is useful for.
  • Provides information on how to acquire the test.
  • Indexes test by titles, subject, author, acronyms.

Tests: a comprehensive reference for assessments in psychology, education, and business 
BF176 .T43 4th Floor Stacks

  • For use by experimental and clinical psychologists, business administration, and educational professionals.
  • Indexed by test title, author, publisher, as well as by tests for the hearing impaired.
  • Great book for general review of psychology, education, business.

Test Critiques
BF176 .T418 4th Floor Stacks

  • Indexed by author, publisher, subject.
  • Has reliability and validity information, and a critique of the test.
  • Does not include the test.

Handbook of multicultural assessment 
BF176 .H36 2001 4th Floor Stacks 

  • Useful when studying cultural differences or cultural biases.
  • Categorized by type of assessment test (i.e. personality, cognitive abilities).
  • Includes a review of the test with samples questions, but not the actual test.

Directory of unpublished experimental mental measures 
BF431 .G625 4th Floor Stacks 

  • Focuses on unpublished, non-copyrighted tests.
  • Lists tests in behavior, creativity, perception, achievement, aptitude, communication, development, interest, and motivation.
  • Tests not included.

Gender roles: a handbook for tests and measures
HM253 .B43 4th Floor Stacks

  • A comprehensive listing of sex/gender role measures.
  • Includes complete list of references that have used measure.
  • A similar publication is Handbook of sexuality-related measures. (see above) 

Directory of psychological tests in the sport and exercise sciences
GV706.4 .D57 2002 4th Floor Stacks

  • Chapters organized by general areas of study.
  • Includes reliability and validity information.
  • Indexing by subject and author.

The Survey Kit 
HN29 .S724 2003 v.1-10

  • Enables reader to prepare and conduct surveys in addition to evaluating survey results.
  • Useful to those who must create a survey not already in use.
  • No sample tests included.

Assessment of family violence : a handbook for researchers and practitioners 
HV6626 .F45 2003 4th Floor Stacks

  • Provides in-depth information on a variety of measures of partner violence.
  • Provides primary reference for each measure.
  • Organized by measure name with good subject index. 

Assessment of partner violence : a handbook for researchers and practitioners 
RC560.S44 R38 2004 5th Floor Stacks

  • Provides in-depth information on a variety of measures of partner violence.
  • Provides primary reference for each measure.
  • Organized by measure name with good subject index. 

The ETS Test Collection catalog 
LB3051 .E79 1986- Reference

  • Contains over 18,000 published and unpublished tests.
  • A multiple volume set.
  • Does not contain the actual test.


Searching the web

Web sites with tests and measures that are worth using in your research are rare. The web sites below are the best places to search for tests and measures. Most often, your result list will direct you back to the professional literature or provide test publisher information.

Mental Measurements Yearbook aka Buros Institute of Mental Measurement

  • Not a substitute for the print edition of MMY.
  • An online version of Buros Mental Measurement Yearbook.
  • Provides test reviews and references to tests.

Finding Psychological Tests

  • From the APA web site.
  • Provides basic guidelines to finding tests.



Books & eBooks at CSUSM

Books will give you background information and an overview on what you are researching. You need this information in order to provide context.

Physical & online books available at CSUSM can be located in the following ways:

  1. Search the Library Catalog (use dropdown left-hand side for search types: subject, author, etc.)
  2. Search for an e-book, by choosing an e-book database from the list and using the search bar to enter terms
    • Off-campus access requires log-in with CSUSM User ID and Password

Options to obtain books not located at CSUSM:

  1. Order books through CSU+
    • If you locate a book via OneSearch catalog and it states "Print version not available in the library" you can order the book via CSU+, which is a library borrowing service that includes all 23 CSU campus libraries.  It takes approximately 2-5 days to receive books from CSU+.
  2. Order books through InterLibrary Loan
    • You can search the collections of libraries world-wide by using WorldCat.  If you find a book you would like to order and verify that you cannot get it through CSUSM or CSUSM, you can fill out an InterLibrary Loan request.  Materials will take 5-10 days to arrive and can be picked up at our Library.


APA Style

APA Style


Citing sources is expected in scholarly communities and is almost always required in research papers. Scholars cite:

  • to give credit where credit is due;
  • so your reader (professor) can find the source that you mentioned in your assignment;
  • to add credibility to your research - shows you did the work;
  • and to avoid plagiarism!

Not sure where to start? Review this Flow Chart of the citation process before you continue!

APA Style

APA stands for the American Psychological Association. This is the preferred citation style of many of the social and behavioral sciences. Always remember to check your assignment guidelines or ask your professor which citation style they prefer for your work.

Please note that the seventh edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association was released in October 2019.  The American Psychological Association expects students and professors to transition to this new edition in the spring of 2020 or thereafter.  The CSUSM library is awaiting the delivery of the new guides and the transition of other reliable sources to the 7th edition before updating its own citation guide. If you are required to use the 7th edition prior to our updating our APA page, please go directly to the APA's Style and Grammar Guidelines website or contact a librarian directly for assistance.

Official APA Style Manual Resources

  • APA Style Manual (BF76.7 P83 2010)  Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association: the most current APA style manual is available at the Kellogg library. Click on the above link to find a copy. 
  • The official APA website  Off campus or need APA guidelines right now? Access the official APA website for citation help by clicking the above link. This site has useful tutorials and up-to-date facts about citing in APA.  


Helpful Online Resources


Also Helpful: Citation Generators

  • Zotero  Zotero is a tool for storing citations and generating bibliographies using data collected from the library catalog or websites such as Amazon or Google. For more information on using Zotero, see our Zotero Guide. Always double check your results with citation generators, they are not always perfect!
  • KnightCite Citation Service   This citation generator formats your citations for you. This can be a convenient tool, especially if you have a lot of sources to cite, but it is NOT 100% accurate. ALWAYS check an additional resource like the APA Manual or Purdue OWL to make sure that the citation is formatted correctly!


Sample Papers in APA format